Álamos History Timeline: 1900 – 1949

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The 1900’s started out with revolution and assassinations.
Álamos was in the middle of it all. The railroad came in 1908 and left in 1931.

portales in Álamos, Sonora, mexico plaza.  photo by anders tomlinson

The early 1900’s would be troubled times in the Plaza.

The Sud Pacifico de Mexico plans to extend its rail line south of Guaymas.

The kiosk in Plaza de las Armas was dedicated on September 15, 1904.
It was built in Mazatlán, Sinoloa and moved to Álamosin sections and pieces.
Ayuntamiento Sr. Ignacio L. Almada and Regidores los Señores:

Dionisio E. Acosta
, Miguel C. Urrea,
 Pegro S. Salazar,
José Moreno Salazar
 and Panfilio Santini
 names were
inscribed on a kiosk plaque.

1905 – 06
The Richardson Construction Company invest in 650,000
acres south of the ¥aqui river for agricultural and
irrigation development.

1905 – 06
John Hays Hammond, associated with the Richardson Company
and Boer war hero, is given permission from President Dias
dictatorial government for developing and reopening Aduana
mines in the Álamos District. He operates the Promontorio
and Minas Nuevas mines. He built a smelter near Navajoa and
invested heavily in mining equipment. The wealthy have
reached a peak of prosperity.

Worker unrest escalates with a strike at the
consolidated Copper mines at Cananea.

May, railroad reaches Navajoa.

Railroad from Navajoa reaches Álamos.

Area population estimates included Álamos 3,000 plus,
Aduana 1,000 plus, Navajoa 1,000 plus, Promontorios 1,000,
Minas Nuevas 1,000 and Camoa 1,000.

Humboldt noted in his records that he “passed a train
of over one thousand mules loaded with bars of silver
from the Aduana mines on their way to the City of Mexico.”

Report on the Alamos – Promonitos District mines in
the Mining and Scientific Press.

One of the Aduana mines reaches a depth of 1500 feet.

January, Francisco Madero,leader of the Reform Movement,
arrives in Álamos. Benjamin Hill is a leader in the
Reform Movement. The Aduana mines shut down because of
the Madero revolution. The rise in quick silvers prices,
used in the reduction process, also made mining unprofitable.
Álamos Perfecto Francisco A. Salido denied Madero the
ability to speak in a public area. Don Miquel Urres
invites Madero into his home to meet with
powerful Álamos residents.

Minas Nuevas mines are taken over by Amos J. Yaeger. Later, he would
shut the mine down and sell mine machinery and smelter for scrap.

Northern and central towns are under attack by Maderistas.
Benjamin Hill captures Navajoa. He begins to move on Álamos
but is ordered to stop and repair telegraph and railway
lines damaged in battle.

November, Madero becomes Mexico’s president.

Early, Pascual Orozco, in Chihuahua turns against
Madero, is former ally. Soon Orozco, and an army
of 1400 soldiers, crosses into Sonora.

August 21, an Orozquistas column reaches Álamos which
is defended by 650 federal and national guard troops.
Álamos defenders attacked the Orozquistas outside
of town at La Aurora.

August 22, 10 a.m., the Orozquistas retreat from La Aurora.
Fighting continues through the day and the Orozquistas
leave supplies and over 100 dead men on the ground.
The Orozquistas had stopped earlier at hacienda de Cedros
and rancho de la Uvalama where they had indulged in
aguardiente – tequila?, which they had taken with them
as they approached Álamos.

President Madero is assassinated. General Victoriano Huerta
becomes President. Sonora revolts against Huerta led by
Alvaro Obregon, Plutarco Elias Calles, Adolfo de la Huerta
and Venustiano Carranza. all four of these men, three from
Sonora and Carranza from Coahuila, would become Mexican
presidents. Álamos sides with Huerta. Sonora, Chihuahua
and Coahuila states take up arms against Huerta.

April, Benjamin Hill occupies Álamos as the Huertistas
surrender. He takes money from wealthy Álamos citizens
and captured Huertistas to support his troops in Sinaloa
and repair damaged rail lines. He forced the poor to take
down the sandbag barricades in Álamos and return the sand
to the surrounding arroyos.

August, Carranza becomes head of government.

General Pancho Villa, and thousands of his troops,
fought against Carranza in southern Mexico. Carranza’s
troops won several battles and Villa headed north into
Sonora. Villa forces lived off the land and terrorized
all who they came across. Mines and ranchos were abandoned.

April 8, Maria de los Angeles Felix Guerrean, the famous
actress, was born in Álamos. These were turbulent times
for the region. Yaquis and Mayos were joining forces with
Obregon and Villa’s armies. Venustiano Carranza became
the third Mexican President in two years.

1914 – 15
Wars between Sonoran Governor Maytorena and his military
leaders. Well armed and trained Yaquis and Mayos Indians
join Obregon and Villa’s armies who sided with Maytorena.

Pancho Villa is entrenched in southern Sonora.

May 12, 500 Pancho Villaistas attack Álamos. Major Felix
Mendoza has 30 troops and 50 citizens to defend Álamos
against Villa’s troops. The five hour battle is waged
in the plaza and on Loma de Guadalupe. 25% of Mendoza’s
troops are dead or wounded. He orders the survivors to
surrender and he himself commits suicide.

April, General Angel Flores’ Expeditionary Force of
Sinaloa regains Álamos in a month.

September, the Constitutionalists control southern
Sonora. Villa returns to Chihuahua.

Indian uprisings create ghost towns in Sonora. Álamos
old families remain in ancestral homes.

The United States sends the American Punitive Expedition
into Mexico after Pancho Villa and his troops
had entered New Mexico.

Yaguis and Mayos felt they had not be given benefits
that had been promised them go on the rampage throughout
Sonora. Farmers, ranchers, towns and villages were attacked.
Baroyeca becomes a ghost town.

September, Obregon becomes Mexico’s president. Recovery
from wars begins. Renegade soldiers, bandits, Yaquis
and Mayos continue raiding, plundering and killings.

1920 – 30’s
Sonora re-establishes schools, roads and farming.
Life in Álamos stabilizes. It is now a small mexican
town forgotten by many and home to old families.
Mansions, neglected by war and neglect, turn to ruins.
But Álamos does not become a ghost town.

Maria de los Angeles Felix Guerrean’s family lived in
Álamos until they left for Guadalajara. Soon Maria Felix’s
beauty would be nationally recognized.

Last Yaqui uprising ends in total defeat for the Yaquis,
they have lived in peace with the “Yoris” since then.

One train a week from Navajoa to Álamos.

Planning begins on the Mexican link of the International
Highway. Some thought the highway may follow the old
El Camino Real through Álamos to El Fuerte and south.
Eventually it is routed through Navajoa and south
bypassing Álamos, which is to the east.

Railroad from Navajoa to Álamos disbanded. Traffic to
Álamos was on an old narrow dirt road

amos j. yaeger grave in minas nuevas, sonora mexico.  photo by anders tomlinson

Amos J. Yaeger grave in Minas Nuevas.

Amos J. Yaeger dies at the age of 59.

Álamos city has an estimated population of 1,000.

500,000 hectares of public lands, “ejidos” are allotted
to the Yaquis.

The Álamos region had a population of 5,369 men and
4,848 women older than six years.

ruin of the house where actress maria felix was born in 1914.  alamos, sonora, mexico.  photo by anders tomlinson

Ruins, like this birhtplace of Maria Felix, are bought and sold.

William Levant Alcorn, a Pennsylvania dairy farmer,
arrives in Álamos and bought the Almada mansion on
Plaza de Armas and restored it as the Hotel Los Portales.
Alcorn helped publicize Álamos and had a successful
real estate business buying and selling ruins and property.

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♦ Other Álamos, Sonora Mexico timelines:

1500 – 1599 timeline

1600 – 1699 timeline

1800 – 1849 timeline

1850 – 1899 timeline

1900 – 1949 timeline

Geologic timeline

History videos

Álamos population history

La Aduana mining 1910

Conquistadors, silver and gold

Álamos and Horses

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